By Richard I. Gibson
The stable core of Europe is called the Baltic Shield because the Archean rocks that make it up are exposed over much of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, and the area around the Baltic Sea. Like most cratons that are partly covered by younger rocks, the Baltic Shield continues much further in the subsurface. It underlies most of European Russia, where it is called the East European or Russian Platform. Bits of it reach the surface again in Ukraine, in two small areas called the Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Arch.
Map derived from U.S. Geological Survey.
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